Standard Test Method for Static Leaching of Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste
适用范围：<p>This test method can be used to provide a measure of the reactivity of a material in a dilute solution in which the test response is dominated by the dissolution or leaching of the test specimen. It can be used to compare the dissolution or leaching behaviors of candidate radioactive waste forms and to study the reactions during static exposure to dilute solutions in which solution feed-back effects can be maintained negligible, depending on the test conditions.</p> <p>The test is suitable for application to natural minerals, simulated waste form materials, and radioactive waste form material specimens.</p> <p>Data from this test may form part of the larger body of data that is necessary in the logical approach to long-term prediction of waste form behavior, as described in Practice <a href="http://myastm.astm.org/SUBSCRIPTION/NewValidateSubscription.cgi?C1174-HTML">C1174</a>. In particular, measured solution concentrations and characterizations of altered surfaces may be used in the validation of geochemical modeling codes.</p> <p>This test method excludes the use of crushed or powdered specimens and organic materials.</p> <p>Several reference test parameter values and reference leachant solutions are specified to facilitate the comparison of results of tests conducted with different materials and at different laboratories. However, other test parameter values and leachant solution compositions can be used to characterize the specimen reactivity.</p> <p>Tests can be conducted with different leachant compositions to simulate groundwaters, buffer the leachate pH as the specimen dissolves, or measure the common ion effect of particular solutes.</p> <p>Tests can be conducted to measure the effects of various test parameter values on the specimen response, including time, temperature, and S/V ratio. Tests conducted for different durations and at various temperatures provide insight into the reaction kinetics. Tests conducted at different S/V ratio provide insight into chemical affinity (solution feed-back effects) and the approach to saturation. </p> <p>Either aerated or deaerated solutions may be used in this test method except when testing highly radioactive specimens. Deaerated solutions are mandatory in tests conducted with highly radioactive specimens to minimize the effects of nitrogen radiolysis. Preparation of deaerated leachants is addressed in 7.2.2.</p> <p>Control of the oxygen fugacity is not part of this test method. Such control and measurement may be required for specific uses of test data but are beyond the scope of this test method. </p> <p>Tests can be conducted using vessels compatible with the test specimen, leachant, and test environment. Corrosion resistant materials shall be used for tests with corrosive brines. Radiation-resistant materials shall be used for tests in radiation fields wherein the accumulated absorbed dose will exceed 10<sup>4</sup> rad (see Note 1).</p> <p class="desc" id="N00008"> <span class="smallcap">Note</span> 18212;Additional requirements to the test method apply when using a highly radioactive waste form specimen, as indicated in the procedure.</p><p id="s00002">1.1 This test method provides a measure of the chemical durability of a simulated or radioactive monolithic waste form, such as a glass, ceramic, cement (grout), or cermet, in a test solution at temperatures <span class=''unicode''>x003C;</span>100<span class=''unicode''>x00B0;</span>C under low specimen surface- area-to-leachant volume (S/V) ratio conditions.</p> <p id="s00003">1.2 This test method can be used to characterize the dissolution or leaching behaviors of various simulated or radioactive waste forms in various leachants under the specific conditions of the test based on analysis of the test solution. Data from this test are used to calculate normalized elemental mass loss values from specimens exposed to aqueous solutions at temperatures <span class=''unicode''>x003C;</span>100<span cl......
中标分类号： F75 - 能源、核技术 - 放射性三废处理
ICS分类号： 13.280 - 环境和保健、安全 - 辐射防护
标准组织： ASTM - 美国材料与试验协会标准
英文关键词： cement leaching ceramic leaching glass leaching leachate leach test nuclear waste nuclear waste forms nuclear waste materials radioactive waste simulated waste forms static leach test waste form durability waste forms Cement Ceramic nuclear waste materials Durability Glass Leachates/leaching Monolithic waste forms Nuclear scrap and waste materials Radioactive waste materials Simulated/radioactive monolithic waste forms Static tests--environmental materials/applications Surface-area-to-volume (S/V) ratio
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